Demystifying General Elections: A Comprehensive Overview


The Foundation Of Democratic Government Is Represented By General Elections, Which Give Voters The Chance To Exercise Their Right To Vote And Influence The Course Of Their Country. We Explore The Complexities Of General Elections In This In-Depth Analysis, Looking At Their Importance, Procedures, And Effects On The Political Environment.

General elections are being held in India from 19 April to 1 June 2024 in seven phases, to elect 543 members of the Lok Sabha. The votes will be counted and the results will be declared on 4 June 2024.

This is the largest-ever election in history, surpassing the 2019 Indian general election, and lasts 44 days, second only to the 1951–52 Indian general election. The incumbent prime minister Narendra Modi, who completed a second term, is running for a third consecutive term.

Approximately 970 million people out of a population of 1.4 billion people are eligible to vote.[1][2][3] The legislative assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, and Sikkim are to be held simultaneously with the general election, along with the by-elections for 25 constituencies in 12 legislative assemblies.


Contemporary politics and previous elections:

India has a multi-party system with two major parties, namely the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress dominating the politics at the national level. The Bharatiya Janata Party has governed the country with Narendra Modi at the helm since 2014. The tenure of the 17th Lok Sabha is scheduled to end on 16 June 2024.[4] The previous general election was held in April–May 2019, after which the, National Democratic Alliance, led by the Bharatiya Janata Party, formed the union government, with Modi continuing as Prime Minister.[5]

Electoral system:

Article 83 of the Constitution of India requires elections to the Lok Sabha to be held once every five years.[6] All 543 elected MPs are elected from single-member constituencies using first-past-the-post voting.[7] The 104th amendment to the constitution abolished the two seats that were reserved for the Anglo-Indian community.[8]

Eligible voters must be Indian citizens, 18 years or older, ordinary resident of the polling area of the constituency and registered to vote (name included in the electoral rolls), possess a valid voter identification card issued by the Election Commission of India or equivalent.[9] Some people convicted of electoral or other offenses are barred from voting.[10] Indians holding foreign citizenship are also barred from voting. There is no postal or online absentee voting in India; members of the Indian diaspora are required to travel back to their home constituencies in order to cast a ballot.[11]

For the 2024 election, 968 million people are eligible to vote, an increase of about 150 million people from the 2019 election.[12] In Arunachal Pradesh, a polling station will be set up for the only registered voter in the village of Malogam, due to electoral laws that stipulate voting booths to be placed within two kilometers from all settlements.[13][14][15] Polling stations will also be set up inside a wildlife sanctuary in Kerala and in a shipping container in Gujarat,[16] as well as in 320 relief camps hosting some 59,000 people displaced during interethnic violence in Manipur.[17]

In March 2024, the Supreme Court of India rejected a petition by the Congress Party to end the usage of electronic voting machines and revert to paper ballots and manual counting, which was the system used in elections until the late 1990s, with the party citing risks of electoral fraud.[18] Nearly 5.5 million electronic voting machines will be utilized for more than one million polling stations, while 15 million election workers and security personnel will be tasked with managing the conduct of the election.[15]


Key processes during a Lok Sabha election involve monitoring campaign expenditure, preventing the circulation of illicit goods, and ensuring adherence to the Model Code of Conduct. In the final 48 hours before voting, campaigns come to a halt, and measures are implemented to maintain order and prevent disruptions. On polling day, strict rules are enforced to prevent undue influence, ensuring a smooth and secure election process. Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) are sealed and stored with tight security measures, while Booth Level Officers assist voters throughout the process. Meticulous planning is essential to ensure that elections are conducted freely, fairly, and peacefully.[19]

Comprehending General Elections:

In Democratic Nations, Periodic General Elections—Also Referred To As National Or Parliamentary Elections—Are Held To Choose Representatives To The Legislature. These Elections Set The Makeup Of The Government And Are Essential To Maintaining Legitimacy, Representation, And Accountability In The Executive Branch.

Election-Based Systems:

Different Countries Hold General Elections Using Different Electoral Systems, Each With Its Own Special Characteristics And Ramifications. First-Past-The-Post (Fptp), Proportional Representation (Pr), Mixed-Member Proportional (Mmp), And Single Transferable Vote (Stv) Are Examples Of Common Election Systems. The Allocation Of Political Power, Voter Behavior, And Party Tactics Are Frequently Impacted By The Electoral System Selection.

Election Period:

The Term “Election Cycle” Describes The Regular Sequence Of National General Elections That Take Place Over A Predetermined Time Frame. As The Time An Election Cycle Usually Lasts Between Three And Five Years, Though This Varies From Nation To Nation. In Order To Guarantee Frequent, Free, And Fair Elections, Political Factors, Electoral Regulations, And Constitutional Stipulations All Influence When Elections Are Held.

Phase Prior To Election:

Pre-Election Procedures And Activities Include A Range Of Actions That Take Place Before Election Day. Voter Registration, Nominations For Office, Organizing A Campaign, Electoral Reforms, And Voter Education Programs Are All Important Components Of This Stage. To Ensure A Seamless Election And The Highest Possible Level Of Participation, Political Parties, Candidates, And Election Officials Prepare In Great Detail.

Electioneering And Political Conversation:

A Crucial Component Of General Elections Is Campaigning, Which Gives Political Parties And Candidates A Forum To Present Their Platforms, Agendas, And Visions To The People Who Vote. Rallies, Open Forums, Door-To-Door Canvassing, Media Placements, Social Media Promotion, And Debates Are Common Components Of Campaign Tactics. Election Results Are Influenced By Political Speech Throughout The Campaign, Which Also Reflects The Current Sociopolitical Climate And Molds Voter Attitudes.

Procedure For Voting:

Depending On The Electoral System In Use, Eligible Voters Use Ballot Papers Or Electronic Voting Machines (Evms) At Designated Polling Places On Election Day. Transparency, Equity, And Integrity Are Ensured By The Electoral Authorities Monitoring The Voting Process. The Requirements Of Vulnerable Populations, Such As Voters Who Are Old, People With Disabilities, And Marginalized Communities, Are Taken Into Consideration With Special Protections.

Counting And Results Announcement:

After The Polls Close, The Ballots Are Tallied, And The Results Are Tallied At The Level Of A Constituency. Election Authorities Count The Ballots, Settle Disagreements And Inconsistencies, And Announce The Winners In Each Electoral District. The General Election’s Outcome, Which Includes The Allocation Of Parliamentary Seats And The Establishment Of A Government, Is Determined By Adding Up The Results Of The Individual Constituencies.

Establishment Of Government:

The National Government Is Formed Based On The Results Of A General Election. A Single Party Or A Coalition Of Parties May Emerge As The Majority, Allowing Them To Establish The Government, Depending On The Electoral Method And Seat Distribution. Usually Designated As The Prime Minister Or Head Of Government, The Leader Of The Majority Party Or Coalition Is In Charge Of Directing The Executive Branch And Carrying Out Legislative Initiatives.

Phase Following Election:

Following The Election, There Are The Handover Of Power, The Formation Of The New Administration, And The Start Of Governance Operations. Legislative Sessions Are Called, Elected Officials Take Office, And The Process Of Formulating Public Policy Is Started. The Recently Elected Administration Sets Legislative Agendas, States Its Priorities, And Starts Delivering On Its Campaign Pledges.

Effect & Consequences:

The Political, Social, And Economic Climate Of A Nation Are Profoundly Affected By General Elections. They Represent The Will Of The People, Mold The Balance Of Power, And Lead Policy. Election Results Could Have An Effect On Foreign Ties, Investor Confidence, And National Stability As A Whole. Furthermore, General Elections Act As A Gauge Of Popular Opinion, Revealing Trends In Concerns, Goals, And Issues Of The Day.


The Purpose Of General Elections Is To Cornerstone Of Democratic Government, Representing Accountability, Representation, And Participation. It Is Crucial To Comprehend The Many Stages, Procedures, And Dynamics Of General Elections In Order To Encourage Informed Citizenship And Advance Democratic Ideals. As Long As General Elections Are Held, Countries Will Remain True To Their Commitment To Democracy And The Electorate’s Collective Voice In Determining The Direction Of Society.

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